Managing nginx configuration files

I run quite a few websites now, and I decided it was probably time I stopped editing nginx configuration files on the server, reloading nginx, and seeing what happened. I came across a post from Tyler Gaw, which explained a setup fairly close to what I wanted. My setup’s a little different, so I thought I’d write about how I got it working.

First off, I put this line in the http block of /etc/nginx/nginx.conf:

include /home/deploy/nginx/droplet1/*.conf;

deploy is the username I use 1, droplet1 is the hostname, and nginx is the name of a git repository which contains all my configuration files. This line allows me to have configuration files for nginx outside of /etc/nginx/2.

That git repository basically has this structure:

global/
  letsencrypt.sh.conf
  ssl.conf
  wordpress.conf
droplet1/
  dominicrodger.com.conf
  ...
  domains.txt
droplet2/
  ...
  domains.txt

The configuration files for each server I have (I currently have two) live in droplet1 and droplet2, and things that are common to them both live in global (this includes ssl.conf, which sets up SSL ciphers; letsencrypt.sh.conf, which sets up a location for using letsencrypt.sh; and wordpress.conf, which sets up a basic WordPress installation). Each droplet has a domains.txt file, which is essentially a driver file for letsencrypt.sh, which tells it what domains to generate certificates for:

I have this repository checked out locally, and I make changes to it and push it up to Bitbucket. Once it’s pushed, I have a Fabric command which essentially does this:

  1. Get the sha1 hash of the current git commit, on the assumption that we’re already in a good state;
  2. Update with git pull;
  3. Run sudo service nginx reload, and check the result. If the reload failed, then we roll back to the commit from step 1, show the last few lines of the nginx error log, and quit;
  4. Update any certificates that need updating.
  5. Reload nginx again (to pick up any new certificates).

I use a Fabric command for all this, which looks a bit like this:

@task
def update_nginx_config():
    with cd('~/nginx'):
        good_commit = run(
            "sha1hash=$(git log --pretty=format:'%h' -n 1); echo $sha1hash",
            quiet=True
        )

        run("git pull")

        result = sudo("service nginx reload")

        if 'fail' in result:
            print red("Resetting to good commit %s..." % good_commit)
            run("git reset --hard %s" % good_commit)
            sudo("service nginx reload")
            run("sudo tail /var/log/nginx/error.log")
            abort("Aborting - nginx has been reset to its prior state.")

        print green("Server configuration updated")

        # Copy domain file over for letsencrypt.sh
        hostname = run("hostname", quiet=True)
        run("sudo cp ~/nginx/%s/domains.txt "
            "/etc/letsencrypt.sh/" % hostname)
        run("sudo /etc/letsencrypt.sh/letsencrypt.sh --cron")

        # Need to reload nginx to pick up any renewed/updated
        # certificates.
        sudo("service nginx reload")

        print "Latest commit is:"
        run("git log -1 --pretty=%B")

All this allows me to deploy changes to nginx safely, without running manual commands on my server. Better yet, I can see what changes I’ve made over time, recover from mistakes quickly, and use tools like sed on my configuration files without worrying about breaking everything.

  1. This is based on the steps in Bryan Kennedy’s excellent post, My First 5 Minutes on a Server.
  2. And avoids all the irritation that is /etc/nginx/sites-{enabled,available}.

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